An analysis of the sport psychology

Robert Grove Find articles by J. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

An analysis of the sport psychology

Early recognition[ edit ] Hovland, Janis and Kelly [2] first recorded and named the boomerang effect innoting that it is more likely under certain conditions: When weak arguments are paired with a negative source.

When weak or unclear persuasion leads the recipient to believe the communicator is trying to convince them of a different position than what the communicator intends. When the persuasion triggers aggression or unalleviated emotional arousal. When the communication adds to the recipient's knowledge of the norms and increases their conformity.

When non-conformity to their own group results in feelings of guilt or social punishment. When the communicator's position is too far from the recipient's position and thus produces a "contrast" effect and thus enhances their original attitudes. Later inHovland, Sherif and Harvey [3] further discussed the necessity of understanding these unintended attitude changes in persuasion communication and suggested possible approaches for analysis via underlying motivational processes, psychophysical stimuli, as well as ego-involving verbal material.

Jack Brehm and Arthur Cohen were among the first to provide theoretical explanations. Jack Brehm [4] first raised attention to the phenomenon a fait accompli that might conceivably create dissonance if an event has led to the opposite behavior predicted at a prior point.


He conducted an experiment to examine the behaviors of eighth graders eating a disliked vegetable. About half of them were told that their parents would be informed on the vegetable they ate.

This review applied meta-analytic procedures to integrate research findings examining the impact of exercise on body image. We performed extensive literature searching strategies and located published and unpublished studies that examined the impact of exercise on body image. execution in their sport, winning, Olympic gold medal, recognition, competing for your country, tangible things, teammates, what they can bring to their game, watching their own sport, coaches, 3. Explain the difference between ‘intrinsic’ and ‘extrinsic’ motivation. Provide examples for each. At the Ohio Center for Sport Psychology: We believe that these skills are learned and can be improved through instruction and practice. We begin our work with each individual by assessing his current proficiency in each of the skills.

Then liking the vegetable was measured before and after the procedure. The results show that for kids who indicated little or no discrepancy between serving and actually eating the disliked vegetable at home, they should experience little or no dissonance in liking the vegetable from the low to the high consequence condition.

They thereby concluded that the greater was the individual's initial dislike, the greater was the pressure produced by the experiment to increase his liking. There was also larger resistance to change the attitude when the initial attitude was more extreme. However, they argued that in this experiment, the pressure to reduce dissonance increased more rapidly with increasing discrepancy than did the resistance against change, which verified Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory.

They argued that when a person thinks that his freedom to support a position on attitude issue is eliminated, the psychological reactance will be aroused and then he consequently moves his attitudinal position in a way so as to restore the lost freedom.

He told college students to write an essay supporting one side of five issues and led some of them believe that their persuasive essays might influence the decision on those issues. Therefore, the people who had the impression that their preference was taken into account in the decision regarding which side they would support on the 1st issue showed attitude change in favor of the preferred position, while others who are concerned with their freedom lost move toward the intended position held by the communicator.

This experiment resulted in various links in the chain of reasoning: Jack Brehm and Sharon Brehm later developed psychological reactance theory [10] and discussed its applications. Although Festinger himself was ambiguous about the role of commitment in the theory, later researchers such as Brehm [18] and Cohen [19] have emphasized its importance in providing a general conceptualization of the boomerang effect.

Earlier studies by Thibaut and Strickland [20] and Kelley and Volkhart [21] have also provided support to this line of reasoning by Dissonance Theory despite that they were not phrased using the exact terminology.

According to Cohen, [22] dissonance theory can provide not only an explanation, but also a prediction of both the intended and the unintended influence of persuasion communication on attitudinal change.

In his experiment, he presented factors that can lead to a boomerang effect, while suggesting a broader view of the unintended consequences than simply the case of a response to attempted attitude change.

Cohen proposed the following dissonance formulation model for the unintended attitude change by persuasive communication. First, suppose that dissonance aroused in regard to some unspecified cognition.

According to Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory, we know the dissonance could be reduced by a change in the cognition. Now suppose the resistance to change is great because the actual event cannot be changed and its meaning is ambiguous for example, the person is strongly committed to the original cognition positionthen the person will resort to other forms to reduce or eliminate the dissonance.

In this latter form, one can solve the discrepancy problem through the addition of elements consonant either with the original cognition, in which produced the boomerang effect. Cohen formulated a situation of "mutual boomerang effect", in which the communicator is strongly committed to convince the other person of his attitudinal position by means of a persuasion communication.

Because of this strong original attitude position the communicator holds, Cohen predicts that the more distant the target person's original attitude, the more dissonance will be also experienced by the communicator. The expected "unintended influence" arises when the communicator tried to persuade the other of the worth of his own position by becoming even more extreme in that position.

He asked his subjects write a strongly persuasive essay to the partners with an opposite side of attitude on an issue, who are actually confederates. The subjects here thus act as the communicator to bring their partners over to their own sides.

The subjects were also asked to rate the partners' likability and friendliness before they read "their partner's essay" returned.

An analysis of the sport psychology

Cohen used attitude change of the partners as the manipulation of dissonance where he randomly allocated his subjects into high-dissonance group and low-dissonance group. The results exposed strong boomerang effects for high-dissonance group.Sport Psychology - definition and scope of the discipline.

The literal definition of sports psychology is a deceptively straightforward one. According to Cox () and confirmed as accepted throughout the literature, sport psychology is a " science in which the principles of psychology are applied in a sport or exercise setting" (p.4).

Psychology Degree is a comprehensive resource for prospective students interested in pursuing a degree in psychology or becoming a psychologist.

An analysis of the sport psychology

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Watson II and Damien Clement) - The primary purpose of this paper is to review the ethical issues related to multiple role relationships, within the sporting realm, as they. Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology.

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Derek de la Peña earned a Ph.D. at the University of Florida in where he served as the mental-game consultant. ABSTRACT. Originally, it was widely believed that the connection between performance and arousal was an uncomplicated Inverted-U (Yerkes and Dodson, ), i.e.

best performance could be achieved with an average level of arousal.