Exploratory analysis The clearest way to examine a regular time series manually is with a line chart such as the one shown for tuberculosis in the United States, made with a spreadsheet program. The number of cases was standardized to a rate perand the percent change per year in this rate was calculated. The use of both vertical axes allows the comparison of two time series in one graphic. Autocorrelation analysis to examine serial dependence Spectral analysis to examine cyclic behavior which need not be related to seasonality.
Korean literature The tradition of Korean historiography was established with the Samguk Sagia history of Korea from its allegedly earliest times.
It was completed in and relied not only on earlier Chinese histories for source material, but also on the Hwarang Segi written by the Silla historian Kim Daemun in the 8th century.
The latter work is now lost. This work is considered much more accessible than the "Official Histories" for the Six dynastiesTang dynastyand Five Dynastiesand in practice superseded those works in the mind of the general reader.
It reduced the original's chapters to just 59, and for the rest of imperial Chinese history would be the first history book most people ever read. During the Age of Enlightenmentthe modern development of historiography through the application of scrupulous methods began. Among the many Italians who contributed to this were Leonardo Bruni c.
Voltaire[ edit ] French philosophe Voltaire — had an enormous influence on the development of historiography during the Age of Enlightenment through his demonstration of fresh new ways to look at the past. Guillaume de Syon argues: Voltaire recast historiography in both factual and analytical terms.
Not only did he reject traditional biographies and accounts that claim the work of supernatural forces, but he went so far as to suggest that earlier historiography was rife with falsified evidence and required new investigations at the source.
Such an outlook was not unique in that the scientific spirit that 18th-century intellectuals perceived themselves as invested with. A rationalistic approach was key to rewriting history. He broke from the tradition of narrating diplomatic and military events, and emphasized customs, social history and achievements in the arts and sciences.
He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the world, eliminating theological frameworks, and emphasizing economics, culture and political history.
Although he repeatedly warned against political bias on the part of the historian, he did not miss many opportunities to expose the intolerance and frauds of the church over the ages. Voltaire advised scholars that anything contradicting the normal course of nature was not to be believed.
Although he found evil in the historical record, he fervently believed reason and educating the illiterate masses would lead to progress. He helped free historiography from antiquarianism, Eurocentrismreligious intolerance and a concentration on great men, diplomacy, and warfare.
Hume adopted a similar scope to Voltaire in his history; as well as the history of Kings, Parliaments, and armies, he examined the history of culture, including literature and science, as well.
Because of its relative objectivity and heavy use of primary sourcesits methodology became a model for later historians. This has led to Gibbon being called the first "modern historian". Biographer Leslie Stephen wrote that thereafter, "His fame was as rapid as it has been lasting.
Winston Churchill memorably noted, "I set out upon Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire [and] was immediately dominated both by the story and the styleWelcome to the new Match History!
Search for a summoner to view and share details from epic past battles on the Fields of Justice! A Brief History Of Time Summary SuperSummary, a modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay topics.
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Time History Analysis Requires: Advanced Level. The Time History response of a structure is simply the response (motion or force) of the structure evaluated as a function of time including inertial effects. Time-history analysis always begins at time zero for a given load case.
Therefore, when a negative arrival time is specified for a given load assignment, any portion of the record which occurs before time zero is ignored.