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In present colloquial speech the term information is used in various loosely defined and often even conflicting ways. Most people, for instance, would consider the following inference prima facie to be valid: The first statement implies that information necessarily is true, while the other statements allow for the possibility that information is false, conflicting and vague.
In everyday communication these inconsistencies do not seem to create great trouble and in general it is clear from the pragmatic context what type of information is designated.
These examples suffice to argue that references to our intuitions as speakers of the English language are of little help in the development of a rigorous philosophical theory of information.
There seems to be no pragmatic pressure in everyday communication to converge to a more exact definition of the notion of information.
The term has no lemma in the well-known encyclopedia of Edwards and is not mentioned in Windelband The reconstruction of this history is relevant for business plan definition francais inference study of information. As is shown below, there is a conglomerate of ideas involving a notion of information that has developed from antiquity till recent times, but further study of the history of the concept of information is necessary.
An important recurring theme in the early philosophical analysis of knowledge is the paradigm of manipulating a piece of wax: The fact that wax can take different shapes and secondary qualities temperature, smell, touch while the volume extension stays the same, make it a rich source of analogies, natural to Greek, Roman and medieval culture, where wax was used both for sculpture, writing wax tablets and encaustic painting.
When later authors like Cicero —43 BCE and Augustine — CE discussed Platonic concepts in Latin they used the terms informare and informatio as a translation for technical Greek terms like eidos essenceidea ideatypos typemorphe form and prolepsis representation.
Plato's theory of forms was an attempt to formulate a solution for various philosophical problems: In the Theaetetus c,d Plato compares the function of our memory with a wax tablet in which our perceptions and thoughts are imprinted like a signet ring stamps impressions in wax.
Note that the metaphor of imprinting symbols in wax is essentially spatial extensive and can not easily be reconciled with the aspatial interpretation of ideas supported by Plato. In Aristotelian methodology understanding an object implied understanding four different aspects of it: The source of the first beginning of change or rest; e.
For why does a man walk? This passage states that knowing the form or structure of an object, i.
In this sense information is a crucial aspect of classical epistemology. The fact that the ratio 2: Plato believed under influence of an older Pythagorean Pythagoras —ca. On various occasions Aristotle mentions the fact that Plato associated ideas with numbers Vogelpg.
Although formal mathematical theories about information only emerged in the 20th century, and one has to be careful not to interpret the Greek notion of a number in any modern sense, the idea that information was essentially a mathematical notion, dates back to classical philosophy: Such a form had both an ontological and an epistemological aspect: The concept of information thus from the very start of philosophical reflection was already associated with epistemology, ontology and mathematics.
Two fundamental problems that are not explained by the classical theory of ideas or forms are 1 the actual act of knowing an object i.
Aristotle treats these issues in De Anime, invoking the signet-ring-impression-in-wax analogy: This must be conceived of as taking place in the way in which a piece of wax takes on the impress of a signet-ring without the iron or gold; we say that what produces the impression is a signet of bronze or gold, but its particular metallic constitution makes no difference: What it thinks must be in it just as characters may be said to be on a writing-tablet on which as yet nothing actually stands written: Here he analyzes vision as an analogy for the understanding of the Trinity.
There are three aspects: For this process of information Augustine uses the image of a signet ring making an impression in wax De Trinitate, XI Cap 2 par 3. The tabula rasa notion was later further developed in the theory of knowledge of Avicenna c.since business is regarded to as a profitable and lucrative activity, this has increased greed in businesses’ expectations and ambitions which results in an unfair competition and human exploitation.
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