Sign In or Create a free account to receive alerts. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises OMEs on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method A systematic search was conducted to identify relevant studies published in peer-reviewed journals from to Conclusions This systematic review reveals that surface NMES to the neck has been most extensively studied with promising findings, yet high-quality controlled trials are needed to provide evidence of efficacy.
However, there are concerns that any increases in employment come at the cost of reduced employment elsewhere. This column examines the displacement effects of one such programme in the UK. These findings suggest place-based policies should Cep evidence on traded activities that are less susceptible to local displacement effects.
Governments around the world target large amounts of money at areas experiencing high unemployment and poor economic performance.
On top of this, many national governments run extensive programmes aiming to alleviate deprivation in the poorest areas. However, the worry is that these improvements may come at a cost of reduced employment in the unsupported parts of the economy.
Unsupported businesses may well suffer from the assistance provided to their government-supported competitors. This has long been a particular concern with spatially targeted policies that provide support to firms in some areas, but not others.
What Cep evidence these policies simply shuffle employment from one area to another? If that shuffling occurs at large scales say from the South to the North of England then this may be consistent with government policy objectives.
But what if, instead, any displacement happens at small spatial scales? While these concerns over adverse displacement effects are long standing, there is little causal evidence on whether they occur in practice.
A number of recent studies have begun to address this gap in our understanding of the effect of these policies. In another study, Hanson and Rohlin looked at areas just outside successful Enterprise Zones a US policy targeted at encouraging enterprise in declining areas and compared them to areas just outside unsuccessful zones, finding substantial evidence of displacement areas just outside unsuccessful zones do relatively better because they don't experience the displacement.
In contrast, Ham et al find no evidence of displacement effects for three US place-based programmes when comparing a set of nearest ineligible Census Tracts contiguous to the treatment area to a set of second nearest ineligible Census Tracts.
In a recent studywe add to the available evidence by looking at local displacement effects with the help of extremely fine spatial data on employment and businesses in the UK.
We examined spillover effects in local markets at the boundaries of areas supported by the Local Enterprise Growth Initiative LEGI — a UK programme that targeted deprived areas in We observed that the programme increased employment on the LEGI-side of the treatment area boundary, but this came at the cost of comparable employment losses in untreated localities just on the other side of the boundary.
The data also suggested that these effects vanish quickly when moving away from the LEGI boundary, pointing towards displacement in local markets. Moreover, none of these effects persist after the programme was abolished in Figure 1 provides a graphical presentation of our results.
It shows growth rates for employment within 1km-wide bands constructed based on the distance from the nearest LEGI area boundary. The estimates are based on employment data at a fine spatial scale and allow for differences in area characteristics as well as unobserved trends in employment in the neighbourhood of LEGI areas.
The figure reveals a striking pattern of effects at the LEGI boundary, with the area just inside the boundary seeing employment gains, while the control area just outside the programme area suffered from employment losses.
This pattern of results suggests significant displacement of employment in a small neighbourhood around the LEGI boundary. When looking at unemployment, we find no displacement effects, which is unsurprising given that workers are free to cross the LEGI boundary and the programme appears to deliver no net job creation.
Difference-in-difference estimates by 1km-wide control and treatment rings from column 2, table 4 Elias and Overman The outcome is the log change in employment from to Because similar businesses that are located close to each other often compete in the same local product or service markets, displacement effects at the boundary of the programme area are not unexpected.
On the contrary, they are predicted by theory — hence the concerns of many economists about the impact of such spatially targeted programmes.
The bottom line from our results is that LEGI did little to increase employment in the most deprived areas of England.Evidence is published on the Inquiry's website when it has been adduced at a hearing.
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The types of report available are summarised below. Evidence reviews provide a synopsis of clinical and economic evidence. Evaluation reports present the findings of clinical, technical.
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The multi-faceted approach ensured that uncertainties were mitigated (σ/d ~ 2%). The authors of CEP-EL: A Comprehensive Evaluation Process for English Learners, Angela Gaviria, Tiffany Jones-Cristiani, practices, culturally responsive strategies, and evidence-based methods.
BACKGROUND The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA ) emphasizes the The CEP-EL is intended for students who are. The Commission on Evidence-Based Policymaking (CEP) was established by the bipartisan Evidence-Based Policymaking Commission Act of , jointly sponsored by Speaker Paul Ryan (R-WI) and Senator Patty Murray (D-WA), and signed by President Barack Obama on March 30, there is also evidence that the same crime (i.e., same cost inflicted) is seen as less serious when done for a large gain in inclusive fitness, such as to feed one's family, than for a small gain (Rossi, Simpson, & Miller ).
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