Copyright c Ginny Maziarka. Thursday, December 3, MPS considers condom giveaway program for kids A little more than a hot lunch program. MPS pondering distributing sexual pharmaceutical products to minors. Milwaukee Public Schools' health officials want to make condoms freely available to students in many of the district's high schools, as part of an effort to combat the health risks that sexually transmitted infections and other communicable diseases pose to young people.
Breast tenderness is common during the first trimester, and is more common in women who are pregnant at a young age. Sometimes, timing may also use the fertilization age which is the age of the embryo.
Start of gestational age According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologiststhe main methods to calculate gestational age are: Early obstetric ultrasoundcomparing the size of an embryo or fetus to that of a reference group of pregnancies of known gestational age such as calculated from last menstrual periodsand using the mean gestational age of other embryos or fetuses of the same size.
If the gestational age as calculated from an early ultrasound is contradictory to the one calculated directly from the last menstrual period, it is still the one from the early ultrasound that is used for the rest of the pregnancy. Estimated date of delivery Due date estimation basically follows two steps: Determination of which time point is to be used as origin for gestational ageas described in section above.
Adding the estimated gestational age at childbirth to the above time point. Childbirth on average occurs at a gestational age of days 40 weekswhich is therefore often used as a standard estimation for individual pregnancies.
Naegele's rule is a standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy when assuming a gestational age of days at childbirth.
The rule estimates the expected date of delivery EDD by adding a year, subtracting three months, and adding seven days to the origin of gestational age.
Alternatively there are mobile appswhich essentially always give consistent estimations compared to each other and correct for leap yearwhile pregnancy wheels made of paper can differ from each other by 7 days and generally do not correct for leap year.
A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasoundand 16 days when estimated directly by last menstrual period.
Human fertilization Fertilization and implantation in humans Through an interplay of hormones that includes follicle stimulating hormone that stimulates folliculogenesis and oogenesis creates a mature egg cellthe female gamete.
Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg.
The fusion of male and female gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Pregnancy rates for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation. Fertilization conception is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age.
Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period. A third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus.
This is about a week to ten days after fertilization.For example, a US Representative, Tom Coburn reports that “the distribution of school condoms conflicts with “common sense” and increases condom use but does not necessarily lead to lower rates of either pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases” (Kirby ).
Sexual risk behaviors place youth at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and unintended pregnancy: Young people (aged ) accounted for an estimated 21% of all new HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2; Among young people (aged ) diagnosed with HIV in , 81% were gay and bisexual males.
Providing condoms to students in public education programs will reduce the incidence of underage pregnancy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. If one accepts the premise that condoms are an effective means of prevention, it stands to reason that their distribution could have a significant impact.
The Notre Dame researchers focused on school condom distribution programs, some of which required counseling of some kind and other programs that did not. For those programs that required no counseling, they found a 10% rise in teen births and a notable increase in gonorrhea in women, an additional cases per 1, women.
Chairperson, The Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study examines the nature, extent, and associated problems of heavy episodic or "binge" drinking. and exposure to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases is dramatically increased by their own alcohol abuse and by that of their.
In many countries, distribution of condoms has helped reduce HIV transmission in populations disproportionately affected by the epidemic, like men who have sex with men. Using condoms consistently and correctly is a highly effective way for adolescents .