Visit Website The Rise of Athens The defeat of the Persians marked the beginning of Athenian political, economic, and cultural dominance.
Aesthetic characteristics and artistic traditions Art as a reflection of Chinese class structure One of the outstanding characteristics of Chinese art is the extent to which it reflects the class structure that has existed at different times in Chinese history.
Up to the Warring States period — bcethe arts were produced by anonymous craftsmen for the royal and feudal courts. It is believed that during the Shang and early Zhou periods the production of ritual bronze s was exclusively regulated under the authority of the court, which could grant or withhold authorization for production by regional workshops among the various states or others who paid fealty to the court.
Under the careful regulation of court patrons in the Shang and Zhou periods, design features were shared among specialists working in the various media and were remarkably uniform from bronzes to lacquerwares to textiles.
During the Warring States period and the Han dynasty bce— cethe growth of a landowning and merchant class brought new patrons.
After the Han there began to emerge the concept of cultural practice as the product of the leisure of the educated gentry, many of whom were amateur practitioners of the arts of poetrymusiccalligraphyand, eventually, painting.
At this time a distinction began to arise between the lower-class professional and the elite amateur artist; this distinction would have a great influence on the character of Chinese art in later times.
Gradually one tradition became identified with the artists and craftsmen who worked for the court or sold their work for profit. The scholarly amateurs looked upon such people with some contemptand the visual arts of the literati became a separate tradition that was increasingly refined and rarefied to the point that, from the Song dynasty — onward, an assumed awkwardness zhuo or understatement pingdan in technique was admired as a mark of the amateur and gentleman.
As a medium of highly individual expression, painting and calligraphy also became important media of exchange in a social economy where the giving of gifts was central to the building of an interpersonal network. One effect of the revolutions of the 20th century was the breaking down of the class barriers between amateur and professional.
During the Cultural Revolution of —76, literati art and artists were denigrated and an emphasis was placed on anonymous, proletarian-made art like that of the Tang dynasty — and earlier.
The role of linearity in Chinese art Since the 3rd century ce, calligraphy, or writing as a fine art, has been considered supreme among the visual arts in China.
Not only does it require immense skill and fine judgment, but it is regarded as uniquely revealing of the character and breadth of cultivation of the writer. It is believed that the appreciation and production of calligraphy requires lofty personal qualities and unusual aesthetic sensitivity.
The comprehension of its finer points is thought to require experience and sensibility of a high order.
The Chinese painter uses essentially the same materials as the calligrapher—brush, inkand silk or paper —and the Chinese judge his work by the same criteria they use for the calligrapher, basically the vitality and expressiveness of the brush stroke itself and the harmonious rhythm of the whole composition.
Painting in China is, therefore, essentially a linear art. The painters of most periods were not concerned with striving for originality or conveying a sense of reality and three-dimensional mass through aids such as shading and perspective ; rather, they focused on using silk or paper to transmit, through the rhythmic movement of the brush stroke, an awareness of the inner life of things.
The aesthetics of line in calligraphy and painting have had a significant influence on the other arts in China. For more information about Chinese calligraphy, see Chinese calligraphy. Characteristic themes and symbols In early times Chinese art often served as a means to submit to the will of heaven through ritual and sacrifice.
Archaic bronze vessels were made for sacrifices to heaven and to the spirits of clan ancestors, who were believed to influence the living for good if the rites were properly and regularly performed.
For more information on ritual bronzes, see metalwork ; Chinese bronzes. Chinese society, basically agricultural, has always laid great stress on understanding the pattern of nature and living in accordance with it. The world of nature was seen as the visible manifestation of the workings of a higher power through the generative interaction of the yin-yang female-male dualism.
As it developed, the purpose of Chinese art turned from propitiation and sacrifice to the expression of human understanding of these forces, in the form of painting of landscapes, bamboobirdsand flowers.
This might be called the metaphysicalDaoist aspect of Chinese painting.A summary of Themes in Edith Hamilton's Mythology. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Mythology and what it means.
Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. The ancient Greeks idolized intellect and spirit, while gods shared mortal passions and flaws to make themselves more accessible to humans.
Beauty and harmony were truly at the heart of the ancient Greek civilization.
Minoan Art Sculpture and Art in Ancient Greece. Greek art and sculpture has had a profound effect throughout the ages. Many of the styles have been reproduced and copied by some of what the modern day audiences would class as some of the finest artists to have ever lived e.g.
Michelangelo. Ancient Egyptian civilization produced numerous art works with assorted themes. Some of the themes are historical and tell of pharaohs, whereas others are religious in nature. These artistic creations are designed to preserve Egyptian heritage.
Many of these art forms have survived through the years and are still in relatively good condition. Chinese art, the painting, calligraphy, architecture, pottery, sculpture, bronzes, jade carving, and other fine or decorative art forms produced in China over the centuries.
A discussion concerning Chinese art, from the documentary China: West Meets East at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Ecuadorian themes are vital and dynamic, drawing on deeply felt cultural conflict that continues today.” In Ecuador to review Cuenca’s art bienal, Kirchner wrote: “Browsing the galleries in Quito and Cuenca I am struck not only by the exceptional quality but also by the low prices.