Confucianism and TaoismThe Religion of India:
Send email to admin eh. Weber argued that Reformed i. Contrary to medieval belief, religious vocations were no longer considered superior to economic vocations for only personal faith mattered with God. Nevertheless, Luther did not push this potential revolution further because he clung to a traditional, static view of economic life.
John Calvinor more accurately Calvinism, changed that. Calvinism accomplished this transformation, not so much by its direct teachings, but according to Weber by the interaction of its core theology with human psychology.
Under this definition, sacraments, good deeds, contrition, virtue, assent to doctrines, etc.
Thus, whether one was among those saved the elect became the urgent question for the average Reformed churchman according to Weber. Uncertainty about salvation, according to Weber, had the psychological effect of producing a single-minded search for certainty. Thus upright living, which could not earn salvation, returned as evidence of salvation.
This singleness of purpose left no room for diversion and created what Weber called an ascetic character. Only in a calling does this focus find full expression.
Such emphasis on a calling was but a small step from a full-fledged capitalistic spirit. A sense of calling and an ascetic ethic applied to laborers as well as to entrepreneurs and businessmen.
Nascent capitalism required reliable, honest, and punctual laborwhich in traditional societies had not existed That free labor would voluntarily submit to the systematic discipline of work under capitalism required an internalized value system unlike any seen before Calvinism provided this value system Life was to be controlled the better to serve God.
Impulse and those activities that encouraged impulse, such as sport or dance, were to be shunned. External finery and ornaments turned attention away from inner character and purpose; so the simpler life was better. Excess consumption and idleness were resources wasted that could otherwise glorify God.
In short, the Protestant ethic ordered life according to its own logic, but also according to the needs of modern capitalism as understood by Weber. An adequate summary requires several additional points. First, Weber virtually ignored the issue of usury or interest.
Second, Weber magnified the extent of his Protestant ethic by claiming to find Calvinist economic traits in later, otherwise non-Calvinist Protestant movements. Third, Weber thought that once established the spirit of modern capitalism could perpetuate its values without religion, citing Benjamin Franklin whose ethic already rested on utilitarian foundations.
Critiques of Weber Critiques of Weber can be put into three categories. First, Weber might have been wrong about the facts: Second, Weber might have misinterpreted Calvinism or, more narrowly, Puritanism; if Reformed teachings were not what Weber supposed, then logically they might not have supported capitalism.
On the first count, Weber has been criticized by many. During the early twentieth century, historians studied the timing of the emergence of capitalism and Calvinism in Europe. However, he finds much reason to discredit a cause-and-effect relationship.
Sometimes capitalism preceded Calvinism Netherlandsand sometimes lagged by too long a period to suggest causality Switzerland. Sometimes Catholic countries Belgium developed about the same time as the Protestant countries. Even in America, capitalist New England was cancelled out by the South, which Samuelsson claims also shared a Puritan outlook.
Weber himself, perhaps seeking to circumvent such evidence, created a distinction between traditional capitalism and modern capitalism.
The view that traditional capitalism could have existed first, but that Calvinism in some meaningful sense created modern capitalism, depends on too fine a distinction according to critics such as Samuelsson.
Nevertheless, because of the impossibility of controlled experiments to firmly resolve the question, the issue will never be completely closed.
The second type of critique is that Weber misinterpreted Calvinism or Puritanism.German sociologist Max Weber ( ) developed the Protestant-ethic thesis in two journal articles published in The English translation appeared in book form as The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism in Max Weber’s the protestant ethic and the “spirit” of capitalism is one of the most debated and discussed pieces of sociological work, both in the years following its publication and in contemporary sociology classrooms and academia.
In his book The Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (, translated into English in ), Max Weber first posited the thesis that the Protestant work ethic has opened the door. THE PROTESTANT ETHIC THESIS: AN INTERNALCRITIQUE FRANK].
SPARHAWK Cornell University Mid-AmericanReview ofSociology, , Vol. 1, No. Max Weber's thesis ofa relation between a Protestant ethic and a spirit ofcapitalism is examined.
The Protestant Ethic Thesis. Donald Frey, Wake Forest University. German sociologist Max Weber ( ) developed the Protestant-ethic thesis in two journal articles published in The English translation appeared in book form as The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism in Weber argued that Reformed (i.e., Calvinist) Protestantism was the seedbed of character traits and values .
Protestant ethic, in sociological theory, the value attached to hard work, thrift, and efficiency in one’s worldly calling, which, especially in the Calvinist view, were deemed signs of .