The unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes spam is unlawful in some jurisdictions. Phishing is mostly propagated via email. Phishing emails may contain links to other websites that are affected by malware. Obscene or offensive content[ edit ] The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful, obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons.
Those who came to the victims' defense were ridiculed as "white knights", or " social justice warriors " SJWs ;  this characterization was intended, according to Heron, Belford and Goker, to neutralize any opposition by questioning their motives.
Women in Video Games video. The campaign expanded to include renewed harassment of prominent   feminist media critic Anita Sarkeesianwho had previously been a target of online harassment due in part to her YouTube video series Tropes vs.
Women in Video Gameswhich analyzes sexist stereotypes in video games. Women was released on August 24,Sarkeesian received rape and death threats, and private information including her home address was leaked; she was compelled to flee her home.
In mid-October Brianna Wuanother independent game developer and co-founder of video game studio Giant Spacekatsaw her home address and other identifying information posted on 8chan as retaliation for mocking Gamergate.
Wu then became the target of rape and death threats on Twitter and elsewhere. After contacting police, Wu fled her home with her husband, saying she would not allow the threats to intimidate her into silence. Two critics of Gamergate were targets of attempted " swatting "—hoaxed reports to emergency services intended to provoke a SWAT team response at the target's home.
The Guardian reported that both swatting attempts were coordinated through the " baphomet " subforum of 8chan. Wu cited security concerns, lack of confidence in the management and their failure to return calls. Almost immediately her home address and phone number were posted online, leading to harassing letters and phone calls.
Stephen Colbert questioned why men like Kluwe had not been threatened by Gamergate, noting that the targets were almost entirely women. A May meeting in Washington D. This led to the evacuation of the building and the surrounding neighborhood. They also describe how initial organizers attempted to cultivate a palpable narrative for public consumption while internally focusing on personal grudges against Quinn and aggressive sexual imagery.
A number of websites have blocked users, removed posts, and created policies to prevent their users from threatening Quinn and others with doxing, assault, rape and murder, and planning and coordinating such threats. Commentators have decried the use of such terminology as dehumanizing, and said that discussions on Gamergate forums often center around those referred to as "Literally Who".
One quarter of the tweets sampled were produced by users new to Twitter, most of whom were pro-Gamergate. And ultimately Gamergate will be defined—I think has been defined—by some of its basest elements. Bob Stuart, in The Daily Telegraphreported that "Gamergate has since swelled into an unwieldy movement with no apparent leaders, mission statement, or aims beyond calling out 'social justice warriors'.
Singal observed Gamergate supporters making a constant series of attacks on Quinn, Sarkeesian, and other women, while frequently stating that Gamergate "is not about" them. Michael Salter, a University of Western Sydney criminologist, writes that Twitter's design and architecture was "highly conducive" to such abuse campaigns, allowing Gamergaters to overwhelm users' ability to individually block the large numbers of fake or "sockpuppet" accounts used to send abusive and harassing messages.
Within the United States, Twitter and other social media sites are not liable for content posted by third-parties of their service under Section of the Communications Decency Actand so have no legal obligation to police malicious content such as harassment and threats.
The move, while arising in the wake of the Gamergate harassment, was due to general issues of the harassment of women on the Internet. Advocating donations to help TFYC create the game, posters on 4chan's politics board argued that such donations would make them "look really good" and would make them "PR-untouchable".
In the 4chan post that may have coined the hashtag, it was framed as a way to "demand the SJWs stop using you as a shield to deflect genuine criticism". Gamergaters responded with a coordinated email campaign that demanded advertisers drop several involved publications; in a five-step 'war plan' against organizations that offended them, a Gamergate posting described how they would choose from a list of target organizations, pick a grievance from a list others had compiled, and send a form letter containing it to an advertiser.
After a number of game developers criticized Intel for this, arguing that it could have a chilling effect on free speech and that it amounted to supporting harassment, Intel apologized for appearing to take sides in the controversy   and resumed advertising on Gamasutra in mid-November.
These groups organized voting blocs that dominated the Hugo Awards. The campaign was described as a backlash against the increasing racial, ethnic, and gender diversity in science fiction.
Members of the bloc said that they sought to counteract what they saw as a focus on giving awards based on the race, ethnicity, or gender of the author or characters rather than quality, and bemoaning the increasing prominence of what they described as 'message' fiction with fewer traditional "zap gun" sciencefictional trappings.
Kathleen Bartzen Culver, a professor and media ethics expert at the University of Wisconsin—Madisonwrote that while Gamergate supporters claimed to be interested in journalism ethics, their "misogynistic and threatening" behavior belied this claim.
The irony comes from people who claim to be challenging the ethics of game journalists through patently unethical behavior.
Sarkeesian asked, "if this 'movement' was about journalism, why wasn't it journalists who had to deal with a barrage of rape and death threats? Yiannopoulos and Gamergate supporters saw the mailing list as evidence of collusion among journalists.
They cite Gamergate supporters' frequent harassment of female figures in the gaming industry and its overt hostility toward people involved in social criticism and analysis of video games.
As video games grew in mainstream popularity during the s, a "gamer" identity emerged around games marketed to an audience that was predominantly young, male and heterosexual. Over the years, the growing popularity of games expanded that audience to include many who did not fit the traditional gamer demographic, particularly women.
Shira Chess and Adrienne Shaw write that concern over these changes is integral to Gamergate, especially a fear that sexualized games aimed primarily at young men might eventually be replaced by less sexualized games marketed to broader audiences.
Women in Video Games project is devoted to female stereotypes in games.Functionalist an introduction to the laws of music copyright Theory Conflict Theory. looking at unemployment from a functionalist conflict and symbolic interactionists perspectives An analysis of the challenges facing pbs in broadcasting 1 through 30 This is The inventions advancements and significance of the global positioning system gps.
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